Despite the fact that research has been carried out into the Bromme culture through several decades, it remains one of the most poorly-dated archaeological cultures of the North European lowlands.Significant cultural-historical questions therefore remain unresolved. For example: Did the culture emerge under the influence of the Allerød period's mild climate and the rapidly improving ecological potential for a hunter-fisher-gatherer existence in Southern Scandinavia (Fischer, 1991 and Eriksen, 2002)?Or did it first develop late in Allerød times in response to an ecological catastrophe which took place around 12 900 cal yr BP; i.e.
The culture is usually taken to be an expression of the first complete adaptation to, and year-round presence in, the recently deglaciated landscape of Southern Scandinavia.
An element in this adaptation was that the meticulous and economical (in terms of raw material) flint technology that had been practised in the preceding and generally more southerly distributed Hamburg and Federmesser cultures was abandoned in favour of a significantly simpler, in technical terms, and markedly more profligate craft tradition.
This change probably reflects the relative abundance of large flint nodules of good quality to which the population gained access when they made their entry into the Southern Scandinavian young-moraine landscape (Fischer, 1991 and Petersen, 2009).
This is characterised by only three types of tool with retouch: scrapers, burins and, not least, robust tanged points (Westerby, 1946, Westerby, 1987, Mathisassen, 1948 and Fischer and Nielsen, 1987). The location of Holmegård Bog and the site of Trollesgave, relative to the present-day geography and the extent of land, sea and ice cap in Southern Scandinavia during Middle to Late Allerød times (A).
Over time, as further finds assemblages have been discovered, it has become increasingly clear that the features common to the culture also include a characteristic approach to the production of blades (Andersen, 1973, Fischer, 1990, Madsen, 1992 and Madsen, 1996). Other Bromme culture sites mentioned in the text are also marked on the map.
Dots indicate sites that have been dated radiometrically.The map of the Holmegård Bog area (B) gives the topographical location of the Trollesgave site and other well-defined Late Palaeolithic activity areas recorded during intensive field-surveying along the shores of the former lake system. The territory covered by the Bromme culture comprises present-day Denmark, the southernmost part of Sweden, the northern parts of the countries located south of the Baltic and the adjacent, now sea-covered, parts of the Baltic and the North Sea (Eriksen, 2002, Clausen, 2003, Pedersen, 2009, Petersen, 2009, Burdukiewicz, 2011 and Riede and Edinborough, 2012).The Bromme culture belongs to the Lateglacial, the period when people settled in the recently deglaciated Southern Scandinavia.Until now there have been only a few imprecise fix-points relating to the chronological position of this archaeological culture.This situation can now be improved with the aid of research results from a Bromme culture settlement at Trollesgave in SE Denmark.Using pollen and plant macrofossil data, Lateglacial lacustrine deposits containing waste material from the settlement can be assigned to the end of the climatically mild Allerød period. By correlation with climate data from the Greenland ice cores, the occupation can be assigned to the early part of the cold climatic zone GS-1, thus demonstrating that the global ice-core climate zones are not absolutely synchronous with the regional division into biozones.).